[16] Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. The higher secondary school certificate enables pupils to pursue studies either in universities or in colleges for higher education in general academic streams and in technical and professional courses. The club is also a popular venue for major golf tournaments held in India. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97. The Tamil area in India is a centre of traditional Hinduism.Tamil schools of personal religious devotion have long been important in Hinduism, being enshrined in a literature dating back to the 6th century ce.Buddhism and Jainism were widespread among the Tamil, and these religions’ literatures predate the early bhakti literature in the Tamil area. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chera, Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine, culture, and architecture. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. Tamil Nadu History can be traced back to the Prehistoric Period , with the development of Civilization in the Ancient History of Tamil Nadu. [149] Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt. Such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The SDAT – TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai is one of the very few academics in South Asia hosting international squash events. [198] Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent. There are a total of 23,166,721 households. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The history of Tamil Nadu is very old and goes back to thousands of years back. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal – the word kaanum, means 'to view' in Tamil. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple. The Pudukkottai Thondaimans rose to power over the Pudukkottai area by the end of the 17th Century. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis stadium which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments. [127] In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals, crafts and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been increasingly documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! I want Tamil Nadu history book for class 11 and 12. They had extensive trade links with the southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. info)) is a Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of South Asia.Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, as well as two sovereign nations, Singapore and Sri Lanka. Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. Bhukya Ravinder. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. [4] When India adopted national standards Tamil was the first language to be recognised as a classical language of India. Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent in 2001[87] For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency. 16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Chennai hosted India's first-ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the early stone age. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005. [94] The analysis of primary school education in the state by Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but the poor quality of state education compared to other states. The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. [168][citation needed]. [134][135] Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable. As a breakaway faction of the DMK. Airtel Broadband,[191] Act Broadband[192] BSNL, Hathway[193] and few others are providing high speed Fiber Optic broadband connection in many cities & rural areas across Tamil Nadu. [171], Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. History of Tamil Nadu: | | ||| | A temple from the Chola period. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. History Of Tamil Nadu. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice. Another feature of Tamil Nadu politics of the past 50 years has been the role of film stars and their alleviation to a near god-like stature. [26][27][28], The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. A District has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) administrated by Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO), constituted by many Revenue Blocks. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The first day, Bhogi Pongal is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. Tamil Nadu Politics : Independence Movements, from Tamil Tribune Harriss/Wyatt, The Changing Politics of Tamil Nadu in the 1990s, posted by DCRC Category : Indian Political Parties - Tamil Nadu, from Wikipedia Jain Report : (Decentralization in Tamil Nadu), Historical Perspective Tamil Nadu Secretariat - Brief History, from Government of Tamil Nadu The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka as its capital. Tamil Nadu is divided in to four major divisions as per the ancient Tamil kings namely Pallava Nadu division, Chera Nadu division, Chola Nadu division and Pandya Nadu division and the four divisions are further subdivided into 38 districts, which are listed below. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Mukurthi National Park and Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the state. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called Palayams. History and distribution of the Tamil people. 48.4 per cent of the state's population lives in urban areas, the third-highest percentage among large states in India. Overview. [93] Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 2001–2011. European Settlements in Tamil nadu. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu, Puducherry on edge as very severe cyclone Nivar closes in Tamil Nadu Actor-politician Kushboo escapes unhurt in car accident Tamil Nadu … Crore) and Growth (% YoY)", "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly history", "HDI and GDI Estimates for India and the States/UTs: Results and Analysis", "Human Development Index of India & Major States, 1981 – 2001", "Press Information Bureau English Releases", "Biodiversity, Tamil Nadu Dept. The region of Tamil Nadu in modern India has been under continuous human habitation since prehistoric times, and the history of Tamil Nadu and… The state government owns Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers,[169] in Karur. [145][146] Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. [142] The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.[143]. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more national parks. The Minister of Education, who is a member of the state legislature, is in overall charge of education in the state. [36] The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent Nayaks of the 17th century. [103], Tamil written literature has existed for over 2,000 years. Chennai has emerged as the "SaaS Capital of India"[175][176][177][178]. [81] The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832. The scores from the class 12 (combined with the class 11)board examinations are used by universities to determine eligibility and as a cut-off for admissions into their programmes. The following Directorates implement those education aspects which are under the control of the School Education Department. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now ) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Philippines[37] in South East Asia and Pegu islands. [155] With the second-longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006. This infrastructure would also benefit all the government departments, entrepreneurs and individual homes. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100% Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. It is also an official language in Sri Lanka and Singapore and has additional speakers in … Reply . The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain-bearing clouds of the south-west monsoon from entering the state. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggest that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 1,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, Madurai Junction, Katpadi Junction, Chennai Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (Tamil: தமிழர், romanized: Tamiḻar, pronounced in the singular or தமிழர்கள், Tamiḻarkaḷ, [tamiɻaɾxaɭ] in the plural) or simply Tamils (/ ˈ t æ m ɪ l s /), are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry to the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry or to Sri Lanka. Coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu [ 136 ] from the state comprises 39 Lok Sabha and. And introduced broader Western musical sensibilities to the goddess Maariyamman, the state date... 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